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Indian Army’s Strength and Interesting facts. (2020 Upated)

Indian Army

The army has approximately 13 lakh men and women in its ranks. This includes about 36,000 officers. The President of India is the Supreme Commander if three services – Army, Navy and Air Force. The army headquarters is in New Delhi, under the direction of the Chief of Army Staff, who is a general. The Indian Army is the 2nd largest army in terms of manpower after China and the 4th strongest army after USA, Russia and China.

Indian Army day is celebrated on 15 January every year, in recognition of Lt. General (Later Field Marshal). On 15 January 1949, Cariappa took over the first Indian Army Commander-in-Chief from General Sir Francis Butcher, the last British Commander-in-chief of India..
Motto of Indian Army – ‘Service before Self’.

Commands

The Army is divided into the following seven commands each headed by a Lt. General:

Command Headquarter
The Northern Command Udhampur, Jammu and Kashmir
Western Command Chandimandir, Punjab
Central Command Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh
Eastern Command Kolkata, West Bengal
Southern Command Pune, Maharashtra
South Western Command Jaipur, Rajasthan
Training Command Shimla, Himachal Pradesh

The Corps in the army is headed by Lt. Generals, divisions are headed by Major Generals, brigades are headed by a brigadier and battalions are headed by a Colonel. The army is organized in two Parts arms and services as under:

Arms

1. Infantry 2. Armoured Corps   3. Regiment of Artillery   4. Corps of Signals  
5. Corps of Engineers   6. Corps of Army Air Defence   7. Mechanised Infantry   8. Army Aviation Corps  

Services

1. Army Education Corps (AEC)   2. Army Medical Corps (AMC)   3. Army Ordnance Corps (AOC)
4.Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) 5.Army Postal Service Corps   6. Army Dental Corps  
7. Corps of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers (EME)   8. Corps of Military Police Corps   9. Intelligence Corps  
10. Judge Advocate General Dept.   11. Military Farms Service   12. Military Nursing Service  
13. Remount and Veterinary Corps   14. Pioneer Corps   15. Territorial Army (TA)  

Battlefield Formations

  • Command: Indian Army has 6 operational commands and 1 training command. Each one is headed by General Officer Commanding-in-Chief (GOC-in-C), known as Army Commander, who is among the senior-most Lieutenant General officers in the army.
  • Corps: A command has generally consists of two or more corps. Indian Army has 13 Corps & Each one is commanded by a General Officer Commanding (GOC), known as Corps Commander, who is in the rank of Lieutenant General. Each corps is composed of 3-4 Divisions. There are three types of corps in the Indian Army: Strike, Holding and Mixed.
  • The Corps HQ is the biggest field formations in the army.
  • Divisions: An Army division is an intermediate between a Corp and a Brigade. It is the army’s biggest striking force. Each division is commanded by the rank of Major General known as General Officer Commanding (GOC). It usually consists of 15,000 combat troops and 8000 support elements. Currently, the Indian army has 37 divisions including 4 RAPID (Reorganised Army Plains Infantry Division) action divisions, 18 infantry divisions. 10 mountain divisions, 3 armoured divisions and 2 artillery divisions. Each division comprises several Brigades.
  • Brigade: A brigade usually included approx. 3,000 combat troops with the supported elements. Normally, an infantry brigade comprises three infantry battalions with different arms and services to support it. It is headed by a Brigadier. These independent brigades function directly under the Commander of the Corps (GOC Corps).
  • Battalion: Colonel leads a battalion and it is the main fighting force of the infantry. It consists of more than 900 combat personnel.
  • Company: Headed by a Major, a company comprises 120 Soldiers.
  • Platoon: A platoon is headed by a Lieutenant or depending on the availability of commissioned officers, a Junior Commissioned Officer, with the rank of Subedar or Naib Subedar. It has about 32 troops in number. Ghatak Platoon, or Ghatak Commandos, is a specialized, qualified platoon for infantry operations. Each infantry battalion in the Indian Army has one platoon. Ghatak is a Hindi word that means “killer or lethal”. The battalion or brigade commander can task them to perform the tasks such as special recognitions, raids, on the enemy, artillery positions, airfields, supply dumps, and tactical headquarters. They can also direct artillery and air attacks on targets deep within enemy lines. In an infantry battalion, the most physically fit and motivated soldiers are chosen to be a part of the Ghatak Platoon.
  • Section: The smallest Military outfit with a strength of 10 personnel. Commanded by the rank of Havildar, a non-commissioned officer.

Rank Structure

The various ranks of the Indian Army are listed below in descending order:

Commissioned Officers

  • Field Marshal (Honorary Rank)
  • Field Marshal Sam Manekshaw – 1st Indian Officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal. He led the Indian Army in the Liberation of Bangladesh in December 1971.
  • Field Marshal KM Cariappa – He was the 1st Commander in Chief of the Indian Army. He led the Indian Army in Kashmir in the Indo-Pak War of 1947. He was made Field Marshal by the Government in his 87th year on 14t Jan 1986.
  • General (the rank held by the Army chief of staff)
  • Lieutenant General
  • Major General
  • Brigadier
  • Colonel
  • Lieutenant Colonel
  • Major
  • Captain
  • Lieutenant

Jawans (Other Ranks – include JCOs and NCOs)

Junior Commissioned Officers (JCOs)

  • Subedar Major
  • Subedar
  • Naib Subedar

Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs)

  • Havildar
  • Naik
  • Lance Naik
  • Sepoy

Indian Army Regiments

Infantry

The infantry regiment is the largest element of the infantry division. The infantry regiments engage and destroy the enemy in close combat during the assault or hold its position during the defence.

Infantry Regiments

Rajputana Rifles Rajput Regiments Dogra Regiment  
Sikh Regiment Jat Regiment Brigade of the Guards  
Parachute Regiment Madras Regiment Grenadiers Regiment  
Maratha Light Infantry Sikh Light Infantry Garhwal Rifles  
Kumaon Regiment Assam Regiment Bihar Regiment  
Mahar Regiment J&K Light Infantry Naga Regiment  
Gorkha Rifles Ladakh Scouts Vikas Scouts  
Rashtriya Rifles   Arunachal Scouts   Sikkim Scouts

Mechanised Infantry

The Mechanised Infantry is responsible for giving infantry battalions greater mobility. They are infantry equipped with armoured personnel carriers for transport and combat. Its carriers provide a degree of protection from hostile fire. It is one of the youngest regiments of the Army. It has taken part in OP PAWAN in Sri Lanka. OP RAKSHAK in Punjab and J&K and OP Vijay in J&K. It also trained in UN peacekeeping missions in Somalia, The Congo, Angola, and Sierra Leone. It also has the distinctions of operating even in high altitude areas of Ladakh and Sikkim. Equipment of Mech Inf includes Infantry Fighting Vehicles – BMP 1 and BMP 2 & Armoured Personnel Carriers – BRT 60 and BTR 70.

A few Mech Inf Battalions are:

1st Bn (former 1st Bn, The Madras Regt)   3rd Bn (former 1st Bn, 8 Gorkha Rifles)  
8th Bn ( former 7th Bn, Punjab Regt)   13th Bn (former 18th Bn, Rajput Regt)  
15th Bn   19th Bn  
23rd Bn   26th Bn  

Armoured Corps

The use of armored fighting vehicles in modern warfare is armored warfare or tank warfare. The concept of armored warfare is based on troop’s ability to penetrate traditional defensive lines by using armored vehicles maneuver. Much of the applications of armoured warfare depends on the use of tanks.

It currently consists of 63 armoured regiments, including the President’s Bodyguards. The naming of the regiments varies. The terms “Cavalry”, “Horse” and “Lancers”, which have been dispensed within the case of units raised post-independence, are historical legacies from the raising and renaming of these units when it was part of the East India Company’s army or later the British Indian Army. The Scinde Horse was the first regiment who shed their horses to have equipped with tanks. Vickers Light Tanks and Chevrolet Armoured Cars were the first such equipment. A few Armoured Regiments are:

President’s Bodyguards   2nd Lancers  
1st Skinner Horse   4th Hodson’s Horse  
7th Cavalry   10 Armoured Regiment  
9 Horse or ‘The Deccan Horse’   43 Armoured Regiment  
14 Horse or the ‘The Scinde Horse’ 53 Armoured Regiment  
21st Central Indian Horse 62 Cavalry  
17 Horse (The Poona Horse)   90 Armoured Regiment  

Regiment of Artillery

The Artillery Regiment (AR) constitutes almost one-sixth of its total strength, with the units being organized on a Corps and Divisional basis. Earlier, Artillery was classified before as a fighting force as a fighting support force, but is now classified as a fighting force whose priorities shifting between direct support and counter-bombardment.

Its main task is to dominate the battlefield with its immense firepower so that the opponent can neither interfere with the operations nor develop their own effectively. During the Kargil War, the artillery has proven its winning capacity. It is at the forefront of fighting in Siachen, the highest battlefield in the world. During the peacetime, it undertakes counter-insurgency operations in Jammu and Kashmir and in the North-East (Assam, Manipur and Nagaland). A few Artillery Regiments are:

140 AAD Regt.   37 Coorg Anti-Tank Regiment  
40 Field Regiment (Asal Uttar)   315 Field Regiment  
9 Parachute Field Regiment 821 Light Regiment Bombers  
11 Field Regiment   279 SATA Bty  
12 Medium Regiment   861 Rgt (BrahMos)  

Corps of Signals

They handle military communications. It is well poised to exploit the state of art modern communication techniques for meeting the requirements of the Army in the 21st century. Signals are essentially the NERVES of the Army and operate in all types of hostile and peace locations across the country. Communications include:

  • Satellite communication
  • Computer Data network
  • Electronic Warfare
  • Advanced data transmission techniques
  • Static peace communications
  • Creation of Data Centers
  • Computer Engineering Response team
  • Army Radio Engineered Network

Corps of Engineers

The Corps of Engineers consists of three major constituents namely Combat Engineers, Military Engineering Service (MES) and Border Roads Organisation (BRO).

Combat Engineers provide mobility to own forces by constructing bridges, tracks and helipads and on the other hand, they deny the same to the enemy by creating obstacles such as laying mine, fields and demolition of bridges. The corps of three groups of combat engineers, namely:

  • The Madras Sappers
  • The Bengal Sappers
  • The Bombay Sappers

The Military Engineer Service (MES)is responsible for the design, construction and maintenance of all works, buildings, airfields, etc.

The Border Roads Organisation (BRO) helps in the construction of roads, highways, airfields, buildings and bridges.

Corps of Army Air Defence

The Army Air Defence (AAD) is responsible for the protection of Indian Airspace from enemy aircraft and missiles. The organization of AAD units and formations are based on the gun density requirement for protection of various vulnerable points and areas. AAD is also meant to be static and is deployed to deter if not destroy the enemy, who is also expected to come for mass bombing of targets. Barrage fire has dictated deployment of batteries and rings, providing a form of area defence. AAD units can be used for both mobile role against low flying aircraft targets and static role against high altitude bombers.

Army Aviation Corps

They assist the ground units by carrying men and material. They also play a major role by supporting the armoured columns and infantry in any environment – hostile or behind enemy lines and during times of peace.

Apart from the attack role, helicopters, like Cheetah, Chetak and HAL Dhruv provide logistical support to the Army in remote and inaccessible areas, especially the support for the sustenance of our troops at Siachen Glacier. They also perform tasks like combat search and rescue of our troops at Siachen Glacier. They also perform tasks like combat search and rescue (SAR), artillery lift, combat transportation, logistics, relief, military prisoner transportation and medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) during the war and in the case of natural calamities.

Army Service Corps

The Army Service Corps (ASC) handles the logistic support of the Army, It is mainly responsible for the provisioning, procurement and distribution of supplies, fuels and items of hospital comfort. The operation of mechanical transport except first-line transport of fighting vehicles and the provision and operation of first and second-line animal transport is also the responsibility of the ASC.

Other responsibilities include carriage and distribution of ammunition including mines, commodity packing for supply, aircraft loading, and load ejection. ASC is versatile and capable of wide rules for multifarious activities of immediate concern to the troops.

Army Ordnance Corps

The Army Ordnance Corps (AOC) is responsible to provide logistics support to the Army during war and peace. The logistic functions of the AOC involve mechanics of provisioning and procuring of all stores required to raise and maintain an efficient and effective fighting army.

The aim is to make available all kinds of stores to all units of the army at the right time, in the right quantity, at the right place and right cost. The inventory range covers every conceivable requirement of the soldier from clothing to weapons and ammunition, from a needle to a tank and also all munitions except fuel, fodder and medicines. Ammunition management also involves:

  • Major/Minor repair of all ammunition and missiles.
  • Static and dynamic proof of ammunition and explosives.
  • Disposal and demolition of unserviceable/dangerous ammunitions and explosives.

Army Education Corps

The Army Education Corps (AEC) plays a key role in enhancing the educational and professional standard of the troops. The AEC personnel are widely scattered and play a part in all garrisons, headquarters, training centres, units, Sainik Schools, Military Schools, College and Selection Centers.

The human resources development centres run by AEC personnel function as nodal centres to impart education, training in foreign and regional languages and communication skills.

Army Medical Corps

The AMC is a specialist corps which provides medical services to all Army personnel. The AMC has seen combat and active operations in all operations and wars the army was involved in as part of combat formations or as hospitals around the country.

Corps of Electronics and Mechanical Engineers

The role of EME is to activate and maintain the operational fitness of electrical, mechanical, electronic and optical equipment of the Army. EME does work from factory level repairs to everything the Army uses. They work within a battlefield retrieving equipment casualties from their point of collapse with their forward repair teams based on modified armoured vehicles. Back at base workshop they strip and rebuild anything that the Army owns to be fighting vehicles, electronics or data processing equipment.

Following are the responsibility of EME:

  • Refit / Reset/remanufacture of weapon systems and equipment.
  • Inspections.
  • Recovery operation in peace and war.
  • Indigenisation and manufacturing.
  • Indigenisation and manufacturing.
  • Experimental work including operational innovation.
  • Technical advice to units on systems.
  • Design and development of weapon systems.
  • Trials (User & Sustainability Evaluation).
  • Defect reports and modifications.
  • Scaling.

Para (Special Forces)

Para (Special Forces)

Para (SF) is a special forces unit of the Indian Army’s  Parachute Regiment and is made up completely of volunteers who clear the prohibition. It is tasked with missions such as special operations, direct action, hostage rescue, counter-insurgency, seek and destroy and personnel recovery. The unit’s heritage stems from World War 2, with the creation 50th Parachute Brigade in October 1941. The Para (SF) conduct a series of joint exercises, named VAJRA PRAHAR with USA every year, in which about 100 personnel’s from the US and Indian special forces participate.

Motto- “Men apart, every man an emperor”.

The list of PARA (SF) Battalions are:

  • 1 PARA (SF)
  • 2 PARA (SF)
  • 3 PARA (SF)
  • 4 PARA (SF)
  • 9 PARA (SF)
  • 10 PARA (SF)
  • 11 PARA (SF)
  • 12 PARA (SF)
  • 21 PARA (SF)

India and UN Peacekeeping Operations

India’s contribution to maintaining international peace and security has been second to none, as one of the foundig members of the UN. Since it’s inception India has been the largest troop contributor to UN missions. The first deployment started in the 1950’s  when India sent troops to Korea in 1953-54. Recent peacekeeping opreations were expected to be multidimensional, involving police monitors and election observers. India has extensive experience in de-mining task and has contributed greatly to the de-mining work in various missions.

With a total contributions exceeding 180,000 troops and a significant number of police personnel having been deployed, including the first Female Formed Police Unit under the U.N. with the increased commitment in peacekeeping assumed by the UN in the post-Cold War era, India continued to provide commanders, armed military contingent, military observers, and staff officers as also Indian Air Force attack and utility helicopters to many of the UN missions deployed to keep the peace in various parts of the world. Indian naval ships and personnel participated in patrolling task off the Somali coast, in humanitarian aid onshore, and also in the transportation of men and materials for the UN, India has also been contributing to the United Nations Peace Building Fund.

Past UN Missions

  1. Korea (1950-54)
  2. Middle East (1956-67)
  3. Congo (1960-64)
  4. Cambodia (1992-93)
  5. Mozambique (1992-94)
  6. Angola (1989-1999)
  7. Sierra Leone (1999-2001)
  8. Ethiopia-Eritrea(2006-08)

Current UN Missions

  1. Lebanon (Since Dec 1998)
  2. Congo (Since Jan 2005)
  3. Sudan and South Sudan (Since April 2005)
  4. Golan Heights (Since Feb 2006)
  5. Ivory Coast (Since April 2004)
  6. Haiti (Since Dec 1997)
  7. Liberia (Since April 2007)

Indian Army Joint Military Exercises

India – USA                   –        Yuddh Abhyas

India – China                 –        Hand in Hand

India – Russia                –        Exercise INDRA

India – Nepal                  –        Surya Kiran

India – Sri Lanka           –        Mithra Shakti

India – France                –        Exercise Shakti

India – Mongolia           –        Nomadic Elephant

India – Kazakhstan        –        Exercise Prabal Dostyk

India – Thailand            –        Exercise MAITREE

India – Indonesia           –        Exercise GARUDA SHAKTI

India – Maldives            –        Ekuverin

India – Seychelles          –        Exercise Lamitye

India – Oman                 –        Al Nagah

India – Singapore          –        Exercise Bold Kurukshetra

India – Malaysia            –        Exercise Harimau Shakti

India – Bangladesh        –        Exercise Sampriti

India and 18 ASEAN     –        FORCE 18 Multinational Field

(nations including)

China, USA, Russia,      –        Training Exercise (FTX)

Japan, South Korea

National Cadet Corps

The National Cadet Corps was constituted under the NCC Act in 1948. This aims to provide the youth of the country for overall development with a sense of loyalty, dedication, equality, self-discipline and moral values so that they become useful citizens for their country. The motto of NCC is ‘Unity and Discipline’.

The sanctioned strength of NCC is 13.8 lakh. NCC has 3 wings, Army Wing, Naval Wing and Air Wing. It also has 3 divisions. These include Senior division (18-26 years), Junior Division (13+18) and Girls division.

Aims of NCC

  • To develop character, courage, comradeship, discipline, a secular outlook, the spirit of adventure and ideals of selfless service amongst young citizens.
  • To create a human resource of organized, trained and motivated youth, in order to provide leadership in all walks of life and be available for the service of the nation.
  • To provide a conducive environment to motivate the youth to join in armed forces.

Indian Army Equipment Data

Infantry Weapons

.

Small Arms

Name Type Caliber Origin
Pistol AUTO 9MM 1A Semi- automatic Pistol 9mm Parabellum India  
Glock 17 Semi- automatic pistol 9mm Parabellum Austria
Beretta 92 Semi- automatic pistol 9mm Parabellum Italy
SIG Saucer P226 Semi- automatic pistol 9mm Parabellum Germany/Switzerland
SAF Carbine 2A1 Sub-machine Gun 9mm Parabellum India
Micro-Uzi Sub-machine Gun 9mm Parabellum Israel
Heckler & Koch MP5 Sub-machine Gun 9mm Parabellum Germany
1B1 INSAS (Indian Small Arms System) Assault rifle 5.56 mm NATO India
1A SLR Battle rifle 7.62 mm NATO India
A7 Assault rifle 7.62×39 mm India
AK – 103 Assault rifle 7.62×39 mm Russia
IMI Tavor TAR-21 Assault rifle 5.56 mm NATO Israel
Dragunov SVD59 Sniper rifle 7.62x54mm R Soviet Union
INSAS LMG Heavy Machine Gun 14.5×114 mm Soviet Union

Explosives Rockets and Missile System

.

Name Type Origin
Grenade 36 mm Hand Grenade India
Multi Mode Grenade Shivalik Hand Grenade India
Mulit Grenade Launcher 40mm Grenade launcher (40mm) India
AGS- 17 Plamya Automatic grenade Launcher (30mm) Soviet Union  
RCL Mk- II Recoilless rifle (84mm) India
RCL Mk- III Recoilless rifle (84mm) India
RPG-7 Rocket propelled Grenade (40mm) Soviet Union

Artillery

Name Type Origin
Dhanush Howitzer India
75 mm Mountain Howitzer Howitzer United Kingdom  
Indian Field Gun MK1/2/3 Field Gun India
OTO Melara Mod 56 Mountain Gun Italy
M-46 Catapult Self-propelled Artillery India
BM-21 Multiple rocket Launcher Soviet Union  
2S1 Gvozdika Self-proelled artillery Soviet Union
Sprut Anti-tank Gun Soviet Union
Smerch 9K 58 MBRL Multiple rocket launcher Russia
180mm Gun S – 23 Heavy Gun Soviet Union

Combat Vehicles

Name Type Origin
Arjun MBT Mk-1 Main Battle Tank India
T-90s “Bhishma”/T-90M Main Battle Tank Russia/India
T – 72 “Ajeya” Main Battle Tank Soviet Union
T-55 Main Battle Tank Soviet Union
BMP-2 “Sarath” Infantry Fighting vehicle Soviet Union
BMP-1 Infantry Fighting vehicle Soviet Union
CMT Mortar Carrier India
FV 432 Armoured personnel Carrier United Kingdom
OT- 64 SKOT Armoured personnel Carrier Czechslovakia//Poland
BRDM-2 Reconnaissance Vehicle Soviet Union
Ferret Reconnaissance Vehicle United Kingdom
PRP-3 Battlefield surveillance system Soviet Union

Aircrafts

.

Aircraft Origin Type
HAL Dhruv India Attack/Utility Helicopter
HAL Rudra India Attack Helicopter
Chetak France Transport Helicopter
Cheetah France Transport Helicopter
IAI Searcher Israel Reconnaissance UAV
IAI Heron Israel Reconnaissance UAV
DRDO Nishant India Reconnaissance UAV

Air-Defence Missiles and Systems

Name Type Origin
Prithvi Air Defence(PAD) Anti-Ballistic Missile India
Advanced Air Defence (AAD) Anti-Ballistic Missile India
S-300 PMU 2 Strategic surface-to air Missile Soviet Union
Akash Surface-to-air-missile Soviet Union
Trishul Missile Surface-to-air missile India
Bofors L 40/70 Anti-Aircraft Artillery Sweden

Ballistic and Cruise Missiles

Name Type Origin Range
Brahmos Cruise Missile India/Russia 300 Km
Nirbhay Cruise Missile India 1000 Km
Prithvi-I,II,III,IV Short-range ballistic missile India 150/250/350 Km
Agni-I Medium-range ballistic missile India 700-800 Km
Shaurya Hypersonic glide missile India 700-1900 Km
Prahaar Tactical ballistic missile India 2000-3500 Km
Agni-II Intermediate-range ballistic missile India 2000-3500 Km
Agni-III Intermediate-range ballistic missile India 3500-5000 Km

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