Structure and Organization
There are broad categories in the Indian Navy:
- Logistics and Material
- Naval Aviation
Motto of the Indian Navy
‘Shano Varuna’ meaning ‘May the Lord of the Oceans be Auspicious Unto us’
Indian Navy Day – 4 Dec every year
The Indian Navy operates three commands. Each command is headed by a Vice Admiral, Flag Officer Commanding in Chief.
|Command||Location of Headquarter|
|Western Naval Command||Mumbai, Maharashtra|
|Eastern Naval Command||Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh|
|Southern Naval Command||Kochi, Kerala|
Two of the three commands have fleets commandeered by a Rear Admiral, i.e. the Eastern and Western Fleets, and each also has a Commodore commanding submarines Southern Naval Command is a training command and includes the Flag Officer Sea Training.
Additionally, the Andaman and Nicobar, Command at Port Blair is a joint Command reporting to the Chief of Integrated Service Command (CISC) in New Delhi. The Andaman and Nicobar and Nicobar Islands in 2001. It was made to protect the strategic interests of India in Southeast Asia and the Malacca Strait..
Indian Navy Opreations
The range of operations the naval forces may be involved in vast, ranging from high intensity war fighting at the one end to humanitarian assistance and disaster relief operations at the other end. This broad range of operations can be divided into distinct roles, each demanding a specific approach to the conduct of operations.
India’s naval policies is aimed at safeguarding shipping freedom and safety in maritime lines and at securing its interests in contiguous waters, Exclusive Economic Zone and Island territories.
Finally, the Navy would like to emerge as a blue water force of the world class, capable of meetingregional challenges and safeguarding the maritime interests of India.
Indian naval expansion is being undertaken with an eye on China, and INS Arihant and INS Vikrant now withstanding, India has nautical miles to go before it can catch up with its powerful neighbor, which has made some significant advances in waters surrounding India.
According to this, The four major roles for the Indian Navy are as follows:
The various ranks of the Indian Navy are listed below in descending order:
- Admiral of the Fleet (Honorary Rank)
Note: No Officer from the Navy has been given the rank of the Admiral of the Fleet till date.
- Admiral (the rank held by Chief of Naval Staff)
- Vice Admiral
- Rear Admiral
- Lieutenant Commander
Jawans (Other Ranks – include JCOs and NCOs)
- Master Chief Petty Officer Class-I
- Master chief Petty Officer Class – II
- Chief Petty Officer
Non Commissioned Officers (NCOs)
- Petty Officer
- Leading Seaman
- Seaman Class-I
- Seaman Class – II
Ships in the Indian Navy
The name of all in service ships (and Naval Bases) of the Indian Navy are prefixed with the letters INS, designating Indian Naval Ship. The Indian Navy fleet is a mixture of indigenous and foreign vessels. The Indian Navy has around 59,000 personnel on active duty.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that acts as a seagoing airbase, fitted with a full-length flight deck and aircraft transportation, targeting, deployment and aircraft recovering. Typically, it is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to projectair power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Cost-constructing of aircraft carriers are high and it’s a vital assets. Aircraft carriers evolved to nuclear powered warships from cruisers carrying numerous fighter aircraft, strike aircraft, helicopters, and other types of aircraft. They are:
INS Viraat- decommissioned
- Prior to being commissioned into the Indian Navy, the aircraft carrier had served as the HMS Hermes with the British Royal Navy and went on to serve with distinction in the 1982 Falklands Islands War against Argentina.
- Capacity – 1,200 officers and sailors
- 2 x 40 mm Bofors AA guns
- 16 x Barak SAM VL cells
- 2 x twin AK-230 CIWS
- Up to 26 aircraft, including
- 16 Sea Harrier
- 2 HAL Chetak
- 4 HAL Dhruv
INS Vikramaditya commissioned
- She was renamed Vikramaditya, in the memory of a legendary Ujjain ruler of India.
- Meaning “ Brave as the Sun”
- Originally built as Baku and commissioned in 1987, the carrier served with the Soviet and later with the Russian Navies (as Admiral Gorkshov) before being decommissioned in 1996. The carrier was purchased by India in January 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $2.35 billion.
- In July 2013, the aircraft successfully completed its sea trials and in September 2013 completed its aviation trials.
- Capacity – 110 officers and 1500 sailors
4 x AK – 63 CIWS
Barak I ex INS Godavari
Barak 8 (LRSAM)
- Aircraft carried:
Maximum of 36 aircraft including
26 Mikoyan MiG 29 K multi-role fighters
10 Kamov Ka- 31 Kamov Ka – 28 helicopters
- INS Vikrant – under construction
- It is the first aircraft carrier built in India.
- The Ship was launched in 2013. The ship is expected to start comprehensive sea trials in 2016 and join the navy by the end of 2018.
- An air group of up to thirty aircraft is expected to carry, including up to 30 fixed- wing aircraft, mainly the Mikoyan MiG 29 K and the naval version, the naval variant of the HAL Tejas Mark 2, with 10 Kamov Ka-31 or Westland Sea King helicopters in addition. The Ka- 31 will fulfill the role of airborne early warning (AEW), and the Sea King will provide the capability of anti-Submarine warfare (ASW).
The Destroyer ship type is an advances, multi role surface vessel outfitted with an array of sensory equipment and weaponry to counter threats from the air, surface or under water. Destroyers are designed with speed as a key qualify and can be called to operate independently of the main fleet or in support of the main fleet.
- INS Kolkata
- INS Kochi
- INS Delhi
- INS Mysore
- INS Rajput
- INS Rana
The Frigate ship type is a multi-role, general purpose ocean going vessel utilized for fleet surface ship protection against enemy surface combatants or incoming ariel threats. They are also fitted with advanced systems to allow her to hunt down enemy submarines.
- INS Shivalik
- INS Talwar
- INS Bhramaputra
- INS Ganga
Corvettes are small, fast naval vessel ranking in size below a frigate. They are armed with missiles, torpedoes, and machine guns. They perform antisubmarine, antiaircraft, and coastal-patrol duties.
- INS Kamovata
- INS Kora
- INS Kadmatta
- INS Kirch
A submarines is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater and is specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and naval ships of all kinds. The Indian Navy operates under sizeable fleet of Chakra Class, Sindhughosh Class and Shishumar Class submarines.
- INS Chakra (Nuclear Powered – Under a 10 year leas from Russia since 2012)
- INS Arihant (Nuclear Powered – indigenously built)
- INS Sindhughosh
- INS Sindhuvir
Indian Naval Air Arm
|Mig 29K||Multirole fighter (also used on INS Vikramaditya|
|Sea Harrier||Strike Aircraft (was also used on INS Viraat)|
|Boeing P-81 Poseidon||Patrol/Reconnaissance Aircraft|
|Hyoshin- II -38||Patrol/ Reconnaissance Aircraft|
|Dornier DO 228||Utility/ Transport Aircraft|
|BAE Hawk||Trainer Aircraft|
|HAL HJT – 16 Kiran||Trainer Aircraft|
|Kamov Ka- 31||Airborne early warning Helicopters|
|Kamov Ka – 28||Airborne early warning Helicopters|
|HAL Dhruv||Utillity/Transport Helicopters|
|HAL Chetak||Utility Helicopter|
|Seaking||Ant-Submarine warfare / transport Helicopter|
Marine Commando Force (MARCOS)
The Marine Commando Force, also known as MARCOS, is a special forces unit that was raised by the Navy in 1987 for direct action, special reconnaissance, amphibious warfare, counter-terrorism and anti-piracy opperations. Motto “The Few The Fearless”.
Systems and Sensors
The BrahMos supersonic cruise missile is becoming the primary anti-ship missile of the Indian Navy. The Indian Navy uses modern technology and weapon systems, most of which are imported form foreign countries. There are reports on the joint of development by India and Israel of the Barak 8 missile system, and improved, longer range version of the Barak 1 Air defence missile which is operational on Indian Navy ships. The Barak 1 is used on most of the Indian Navy’s major ships.. The Indian Navy’s nuclear deterrent capability is used on Sukanaya class ships armed with the Dhanush ballistic missiles that has a range of 350 km.
- Also named Rukmini India’s first exclusive defene satellite, was successfully launched in August, 2013 by European space consortium Arianespace from Kourou spaceport in French Guiana.
- It gives a fresh impetus to the India’s maritime security. It was developed and designed by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). The multi-band home built communication spacecraft will be useful to the Indian Navy as it provides with an approximately 3500- to 4000 km footprint over the Indian Region Ocean (IRO) and over both the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal region and enable real-time networking of all its operational assets in the water.
- During Theater-level Readiness and Operational Exercise (TROPEX) in the Bay of Bengal, Rukmini was able to network about 60 ships and 75 aircraft seamlessly.
- India’s Second Military Satellite. Launched in August 2015 by ISRO.
- It would be mainly used by the armed forces – Army, Air Force and Navy.
- Indian soldiers serve from peninsular area to desert to snow-clad mountains under complex terrain and topographical conditions. In many occasions soldiers encounter breaks in commutations due to to topographical challenges. It is expected that GSAT-6 will provide reliable and secure communication.
- The new system also frees the solider from bringing bulky communication equipment since it would bring very small handheld devices into use.
Working Principle of Ships and Submarines
The functioning of submarines in different from surface as they are built a bit differently than the surface ships. Submarines must function in agreement, to travel underwater, with some important laws of nature, including Archimedes’ Principle and Boyles’ Law.
Archimedes’ Principle is the law of buoyancy. Under the law “any object partially or completely immersed in a fluid is buyoed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.” “A vessel may float on the water because the weight of the displaced water is equal to the weight of the vessel. The buoyant force created by the displacement of water acts opposite to gravity, which would pull the ship down because of its weight. If these two forces are equal, the ship floats and if the weight of a ship exceeds the weight of displaced water, the ship will sink. Unlike a surface ship, a submarine can control its buoyancy, thus allowing it to sink and surface at will. The ballast tanks will be flooded with water when the submarine dives and the air in ballast tanks will escape from the submarine until its an overall density is greater than the surrounding water and the submarine starts srinking (negative buoyancy).
Indian Navy Join Military Exercises
|India – France||VARUNA|
|India – Sri Lanka||SLINEX|
|India – USA – Japan||MALABAR|
|India – Russia||INDRA Navy|
|India – Australia||AUSINDEX|
|India – UK||KONKAN|
|India – Singapore||SIMBEX|
|India – Brazil – South Africa||IBSAMAR|
|India – Indonesia||CORPAT (Coordinated Patrol)|
|India – Oman||NASEEM – AL – BAHR|
|India and ASEAN Countries||DiREx (ASEAN Regional Forum Disaster Relief Exercise)|
|Indian and other nations (Hosted by USA, other countries include Australia, Canada, Germany, China, UK, Italy, Japan, France etc.)||RIMPAC (Rim of the Pacific) Participating countries exercise wide range of capabilities including complex war fighting, maritime security, disaster relief operations and sea control.|
|Indian Navy Participating of naval contingents from around 50 nations, including Australia, Bangladesh Brazil, China, France, Indonesia, Iran the Maldives, the UK and the US.||International fleet Review (IFR) This review aims at assuring the country of Indian Navy’s preparedness, high morale and discipline. Many leading rations use this opportunity to show case their naval ships.|
|Indian Navy, Air Force and Army (Tri- Service Exercise||TROPEX (Theatre level Readiness Operational Exercise) All three arms work together for battle situations. JAL PRAHAR Joint Exercise using assets and personnel’s of Navy, Army and IAF|